The Czech Republic number one earned 644 points to beat Werder Bremen defender Theodor Gebre Selassie to the prize - the sixth time in seven years that the Stamford Bridge star has won the award.
The 30-year-old has 98 caps to his name, and this year's triumph ensures he becomes one of his country's most decorated players - beating former-Czechoslovakia keeper Ivo Viktor's record of five national team player of the year awards.
But Chelsea could be without their record-setting shot-stopper for the next few games after Cech broke his finger in the 3-2 defeat to Newcastle last weekend.
He pulled out of Czech Republic's friendly squad to face Turkey on Wednesday night, and is a doubt to play Wigan on Saturday.
Cech suffered the break at St James' Park, and wore a protective brace during the awards' ceremony on Monday evening.
If Cech fails to recover in time to face the Lactics, reserve team keeper Ross Turnbull will fill in. But the former-Middlesbrough shot-stopper hasn't looked the most convincing between the sticks this season, and was heavily criticised for his display during the club's 2-2 draw against League One Brentford last month.
Chelsea reportedly attempted to improve their back-up goalkeeping options with a late bid towards the end of the January transfer window for highly-rated Birmingham and England keeper Jack Butland.
But the 19-year-old eventually opted to sign for Stoke City.