The 29-year-old, who has been a member of the Chiefs' team since 2007, was taken into custody after his Audi A-8 was reportedly pulled over for doing 48 in a 35 MPH zone.
Bowe was later released on a $750 bond - but only after being charged with speeding and possession.
"While questioning the driver, the officer detected a strong odor of marijuana from inside of the vehicle. The officer then requested the driver and two passengers to get out of the vehicle," Riverside police told CBSSports.com.
"Once out of the vehicle the officer explained to the driver, who owned the vehicle, that he was a K-9 Officer and that the dog would alert to an illegal substance.
"Subsequently, inside of a black bag the officer discovered the wallet of the driver and vehicle owner, Dwayne L. Bowe, and two containers that had 6.6 grams and 3.8 grams respectively of what is believed to be marijuana in them.
"Bowe was then placed under arrest for the possession of a controlled substance. The K-9 alerted to a black backpack and inside of that was found a container that had 4.2 grams of what is believed to be marijuana in it."
The news comes as a major blow to the Chiefs, who currently sit top of the AFC West standings after recording nine straight victories at the start of the current campaign.
The Missouri-based team are aware of the situation, but have so far refused to comment.
Bowe is now due to appear in court on December 18 2013.