The South American is not a popular figure at Old Trafford, having failed to produce his best form for the Red Devils, despite arriving at the club seven years ago.
He was expected to leave United this summer for Fiorentina after spending the second half of last season on loan with the Serie A club, but failed to secure a permanent move with La Viola following a string of disappointing performances.
Little interest in Anderson
There appeared to be very little interest in Anderson over the summer, but Burnley were linked with the former Brazil international on the final day of the transfer window.
A move failed to materialise, however, and Anderson remains a Manchester United player for the time being.
He even made a surprise appearance for the Red Devils last weekend, against Burnley, when Van Gaal sent him on in the second half to replace £59.7 million record signing Angel di Maria.
United fans craved a world-class midfielder
Manchester United fans were desperately hoping that Van Gaal would sign another top-class central midfielder to compliment £29 million summer signing Ander Herrera, but the veteran Dutch coach opted instead to bolster his attacking options.
Striker Radamel Falcao was the big deadline-day signing, while a week earlier United broke the British transfer record for Di Maria, who is a winger by trade but flourished last season at Real Madrid in a left-sided central midfield role.
Di Maria certainly has the ability to spark counter-attacks, but he does not have the midfield presence of a player like Juventus star Arturo Vidal, who was continuously linked with a move to Old Trafford throughout the summer.
Anderson: One last chance at United?
That Anderson is included in United's 25-man squad suggests Van Gaal regards him as a midfield option - news which is likely to horrify many Red Devils' supporters, who lost faith in the Brazilian a long time ago.
Anderson made four Premier League appearances for United last season, 17 the previous campaign, and 10 in the season before that.
The last time he made more than 20 Premier League appearances in a single season was back in 2007/08 - his debut campaign at Old Trafford.
But despite having a host of so-called 'final chances' at Manchester United, it appears that Anderson's luck has not run out just yet.