England have been drawn in Group F with Scotland to qualify for the 2018 World Cup in Russia.
Both home nations are joined by Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta and Lithuania during the draw which took place in St Petersburg.
The last time these two rivals played each other was in November at Celtic Park in a friendly when England beat Scotland 3-1.
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Scotland manager Gordon Strachan said: "Just as the sun came out in Glasgow, we heard we will play England.
"I can see why the fans are celebrating, it's a fantastic fixture.
"The last time the two sides met England stepped it up a gear and it was a fantastic lesson - they pressurise you and you make mistakes and that's something that sticks with us - and I hope will stick with us to fire us on.
"The good thing from the supporters' point of view is there are no ridiculous journeys."
With his contract set to end after Euro 2016, England manager Roy Hodgson is excited at the prospect of facing Scotland again if given the opportunity by the FA.
He said: "The Scotland fixture really excite people, the recent friendly matches showed that, and we have got recent experience of what the atmosphere will be like. The games will excite the public, get people in the mass media excited too, it is a good draw all round - I think Scotland will be happy with it and we are happy with it.
"It is a great honour to be England manager - I shall be delighted to retain that position all the time people want me too, but it won't occupy my thoughts at this point in time.
"I'm pleased to come away with a good group and if England want me to lead the team I will be delighted to do so."
The last time these two countries played in a competitive fixture was in the 2nd leg of a Euro 2000 play-off which Scotland won 1-0 at Wembley.
England, however, went through 2-1 on aggregate with former Manchester United player Paul Scholes scoring twice as England beat Scotland 2-0 in the 1st leg in Scotland.