Robbie Weir netted the only goal of the game as Tranmere enjoyed a winning start to their npower League One campaign.
The midfielder struck with 16 minutes remaining to ensure Chesterfield left Prenton Park empty-handed on their return to the third tier.
It is not the start boss John Sheridan will have hoped for after guiding the Spireites to the League Two title last season.
Rovers were impressive from the off as Martin Devaney and John Welsh forced smart saves from Tommy Lee during the opening exchanges.
Les Parry's side continued to enjoy the majority of possession and almost went ahead on the stroke of half-time but Adam McGurk's effort flew over the crossbar.
Chesterfield were trying to stamp their mark on proceedings but could only watch on as Tranmere got the reward their endeavour deserved in the 74th minute, Weir finding space in the area and slotting home. Going a goal behind did not galvanise Sheridan's men as the hosts held on to secure all three points.
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